Basics of Computer Networking

by Surya Reddy
Basics of Computer Networking


In this overview of networking, discover how computers work as well as the design and architecture that is used to create networks, and how you can ensure their security.

How do you define a computer-related network?

A computer network is comprised of at least two computers connected – either by wires (wired) or via WiFi (wireless)–with the intention of sending exchange or sharing information and resources. A computer network is built with the help of hardware (e.g. routers, routers, switches, access points, and cables) as well as software (e.g. operating systems, business applications, or even business applications). Learn all about computer networking fundamentals from experts

Computer network kinds

Since networking has changed, so too did the kinds of computer networks that meet these needs. Here are the most popular and extensively used types of computer networks:


 (local area network) The term LAN refers to the network that connects computers at a short distance, which allows the sharing of files, data, and other resources.

For instance, it is possible that a LAN could connect all computers in an office or a hospital, for example. Most often they are owned by private companies and operated. to know more things about computer networking course


Wireless (wireless local area networks) The term WLAN refers to a network that functions the same as a LAN however connections between devices in the network are wireless.


 (wide space network) as the name suggests a WAN connects computers across a large space, for example across regions, or the continent to the continent.

It is also the biggest WAN, linking billions of computers across the globe. There is a lot of concept of distributed ownership or collective ownership to manage WANs. WAN management.


(metropolitan areas network) The MANs are generally bigger than LANs, however, they are smaller than WANs. Government and municipal entities usually have MANs in their possession and are responsible for managing them.


 (personal local area network) PAN (personal area network): PAN is a network that serves one user. If, for instance, you own an iPhone and a Mac It’s likely that you’ve created the PAN that syncs and shares contents–text messages and emails, photos, and so on across both devices.


(storage space network) A SAN (storage area network) is a specialized network that gives access to block-level storage, a cloud or shared network which, to the user, appears and functions like a storage drive physically connected to the computer. (For more information about how the SAN operates with block storage, check out the Block Storage Guide: A Comprehensive Guide.)

Can (campus region network) The term CAN refers to a campus area network. It is also referred to for its corporate-area network. It is bigger than a LAN, but less than a network that is a. CANs provide services to sites like universities, colleges, and campuses for business.


A network is simply a group of two or more Personal Computers linked together. Many types of networks exist, but the most common types of networks are Local-Area Networks (LANs), and Wide-Area Networks (WANs).

In a LAN, computers are connected together within a “local” area (for example, an office or home). In a WAN, computers are further apart and are connected via telephone/communication lines, radio waves or other means of connection.


Networks are usually classified using three properties: Topology, Protocols and Architecture.


specifies the geometric arrangement of the network. Common topologies are a bus, ring and star.You can check out a figure showing the three common types of network topologies here.


l specifies a common set of rules and signals the computers on the network use to communicate. Most networks use Ethernet, but some networks may use IBM’s Token Ring protocol. We recommend Ethernet for both home and office networking. For more information, please select the Ethernet link on the left.


refers to one of the two major types of network architecture: Peer-to-peer or client/server. In a Peer-to-Peer networking configuration, there is no server, and computers simply connect with each other in a workgroup to share files, printers and Internet access.

This is most commonly found in home configurations and is only practical for workgroups of a dozen or less computers. In a client/server network there is usually an NT Domain Controller, to which all of the computers log on. This server can provide various services, including centrally routed Internet Access, mail (including e-mail), file sharing and printer access, as well as ensuring security across the network. This is most commonly found in corporate configurations, where network security is essential.

Concepts and terms that are important

Here are some of the most common terms to be aware of in the context of the subject of computer networking:

IP address An IP address is a unique number assigned to each device that is connected to a network using the Internet Protocol for communication. Every IP address indicates the host network for the device as well as the place of the device’s location on the network that hosts it.

If one device transmits data to another device, that data contains a “header” that contains its IP address as well as the address used by the device sending it as well as its IP address. a device that is being sent to.

Nodes: A node can be described as the point of connection within an internet network that can be used to accept, transmit, create or store information. Each node must give some kind of identification for access, such as the IP address. Examples of nodes are computers, bridges, printers, modems, and switches.

A node is basically any device on the network that is able to identify, process, or transmit data to another network node.

Ports: The term “port” is the connection between devices on the network. Each port is identified with a number.

If you imagine an IP address as being similar to that of the hotel, then the ports are rooms or suites in the hotel. Computers utilize port numbers to identify which service, application, or process will receive particular messages.

Examples of computer networks.

A wireless or wired connection between at least two computers

with the purpose of sharing information and resources through computers on a network.

Nowadays, almost every electronic gadget is part of an internet-connected computer network.

Internet and computer networks

The Internet is actually a collection of networks that connect billions of digital devices across the globe. Standard protocols enable communication among these gadgets. These protocols include the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (the “HTTP” at the end of every website address).

How do they function?

Computer networks connect devices such as routers, computers, and switches by using cables, fiber optics, and wireless signals. These connections enable devices within networks to exchange information and share resources.


Computer network architecture describes both the physical as well as the logical foundation of computer networks. It defines the way computers are organized within the network and the tasks that are assigned to them. The components of the network architecture comprise software,

hardware transfer medium (wired or wireless) as well as network topology and communication protocols.

The main kinds of network architecture

There are two kinds of network architectures: peer-to-peer (P2P) as well as client/server. In P2P architecture at least two computers can be linked to each other as “peers,” meaning they have the same access to power and privileges in the network. A P2P network does not need the use of a central server for coordination.

Instead, each computer in the network is the customer (a computer that must access services) as well as the server (a computer that meets the requirements of the client who is accessing the service). Each peer makes a portion of its resources accessible to the network by sharing memory, storage bandwidth, bandwidth, as well as processing capacity.

Network topology

Topology in the network refers to how the links and nodes in the network are organized. The term “network node” refers to an electronic device that can transmit or receive, store, or forward information. Network links connect nodes and can be wireless or cabled.


Computer network security safeguards the integrity of the information that is contained in networks and regulates who can access the information.

Security policies for networks are a compromise between the need to provide services to users while balancing the need to restrict access to data.

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